Literature Review

Initiative Description: 2 Meta-Analyses. Meta‐Analysis 1 involved treatment‐control comparisons and Meta‐Analysis 2 involved pretest‐posttest differences of school-based counseling.

Study Results: Meta-analysis 1 included results from 118 studies that involved 153 school interventions; results included only guidance curriculum strategies with statistically significant larger effect sizes than program-wide evaluation. teachers as significantly better than experienced counselors, independent interventions, and unreported providers in providing interventions. Behavioral outcomes were significantly larger than affective, cognitive, and effective role functioning measures of effect. Study 2 synthesized research studies of school counseling interventions in which pretest-posttest measures of outcome were used. Results indicated that school counseling interventions have positive effects on cognitive, behavioral, and affective outcome measures, with improvement in the behavioral realm being particularly significant.

Reference: Whiston, S. C., & Tai, W. L., Rahardja, D., & Eder, K. (2011). School counseling outcomes: A meta analytic examination of interventions. Journal of Counseling and Development, 8.

Level of Evidence: 3 out of 5 stars Very Good