Initiative Description: PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) program in the school context and the Triple-P (Positive Parenting Program) program in the family context. The schools were randomly allocated to one of the four treatment conditions (PATHS, Triple-P, PATHS + Triple-P, control). PATHS lessons address problem-solving skills, social relationships, self-regulation, rule understanding, emotion understanding, and positive self-esteem. The PATHS classes consumed about 67 min per week during the 1-year program. Triple P was offered in the mornings, afternoons, and evenings, and the parents could choose which weekday they preferred.
Study Results: The PATHS intervention (alone) was more effective than no intervention in reducing the children’s long-term impulsivity/ADHD and aggressive behavior. Long-term effects on teacher- and parent-rated externalizing behavior were greater for the social competence interventions than for the control.
Reference: Malti, T., Ribeaud, D., & Eisner, M. P. (2011). The effectiveness of two universal preventive interventions in reducing children’s externalizing behavior: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(5), 677–692. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2011.597084
Level of Evidence: Very Good